This raises the question, is rice particularly susceptible to ER overloading? last half of the season. Expression analysis revealed that lotus AGPase genes have varying expression patterns, with NnAGPL2a and NnAGPS1a as the most predominantly expressed, especially in seed and rhizome. Seven putative AGPase genes were identified in the lotus genome (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. We initiated our structural studies of rice weevil PME (RW PME) 15 years ago, but we were unable to solve the crystal structure with the software and template structures available at the time. japonica cv. Starch in the lotus seed contains a high proportion of amylose, which endows lotus seed a promising property in the development of hypoglycemic and low-glycemic index functional food. Our results represent the first step toward unravelling the mechanism of regulation underlying natural variation of GPC in rice. Iso-conversional Starink approach and Avrami theory were used to evaluate the kinetic parameters, including apparent activation energy and reaction order. Whole polished rice grains were ground using cryogenic and hammer milling to understand the mechanisms of degradation of starch granule structure, whole (branched) molecular structure, and individual branches of the molecules during particle size reduction (grinding). In this report, we analysed the level of variation in grain quality traits in a collection of bora and chokuwa cultivars, and examined the nucleotide diversity at the Wx locus of selected rice accessions to identify the possible cause of low-amylose in these rice cultivar groups. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. The subfractions with n ∼ 400 preponderated (66%) and were rich in linear molecules (maize 71%, rice 75%), whereas those with n ∼ 2500 contained mainly branched molecules (maize 66%, rice 61%). UM is a mixture of 430% plant sterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, 13-sitosterol, and others), 28% triterpene alcohols (24-methylene cycloartanol, and cycloartenol), 19% less polar compounds such as aliphatic The Waxy (Wx) gene encodes for granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) that controls the synthesis of amylose, which is a key determinant of rice end-use quality attributes. The Wx gene tree, classified the bora accessions possessing the G/T-Int1 SNP as japonicas. It improves food security by diversifying our staple foods and makes our agriculture more adaptable to climate change. However, significant differences between the two varieties were detected differences in methane emissions are the result of different soil STRUCTURE OF RICE AND WHEAT . The Amy of milled rice kernels were determined according to the methods reported in Juliano et al. Awn: Tip of the rice grain, which is removed during processing Lemma: Three protective layers of “skin” (brown and yellow) that make up 20% of the grain’s total weight. Rice grains resemble wheat but is smaller than that of wheat. It is a cheap source of energy-dense food packed with minerals and vitamins comparable to those of many legumes. Consumption of underutilised ancient crops has huge benefits for our society. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus (QTL) qPC1 in rice controls GPC by regulating the synthesis and accumulation of glutelins, prolamins, globulins, albumins and starch. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) plays an essential role in regulating starch biosynthesis in plants, but little is known about its characterization in lotus. Currently, improving starch content is one of the major goals for seed-lotus breeding. It also performed well in antioxidant assays. 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